Reference Writing

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What comes below is a gist of APA 6th edition for reference writing. I hope you'll find it useful. If there's any comment, you can contact me at: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Reference Writing (APA 6th edition)

Last update: 25/2/2016

Note: References should be arranged alphabetically, and should be indented (Ctrl+Tab) from the second line on. References should be based on APA 6th edition.

*Pay attention to the yellow highlights and red parts for help.

*The red parts should be italic.

A book with one author:

Ravid, R. (2011). Practical statistics for educators (4th ed.). Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield.

A book with two authors:

Dubin, F., & Olshtain, E. (1986).Course design: Developing programs and materials for language learning. Cambridge: CUP.

An article from a journal with volume, issue, and page number (1 author):

Alfassi, M. (2004). Reading to learn: Effects of combined strategy instruction on high school students. Journal of Educational Research,97(4), 171-184.

An article from a journal with volume, issue, and page number (3 authors):

Khatib, M., Sarem, S. N., & Hamidi, H . (2012). A critical look at the effect of teachers’ self-efficacy on students’ academic success. Iranian EFL Journal,8 (5), 295-306.

An article from a journal with volume, issue, page number and “doi” (1 author):

Richards, J. C. (2013).Curriculum approaches in language teaching: Forward, central, and backward design.RELC Journal,44(1), 5-33.doi: 10.1177/0033688212473293.

An article from a journal with volume, issue, page number and “doi” (3 authors):

Fahim, M., Hamidi, H., & Najafi, S. (2013). Investigating the role of teachers’ self-monitoring in the learners’ willingness to communicate: A case of Iranian EFL learners. Journal ofLanguage Teaching and Research,4 (3), 624-63. doi:10.4304/jltr.4.3.624-635

An online article without volume and page number:

Lin, P. Y. (2000). Multiple intelligence theory and English language teaching. Retrieved from

An article/chapter taken from a book:

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Creating a motivating classroom environment. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), International handbook of English language teaching (pp. 719-731). New York: Springer.

Unpublished master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation:

Rahmany, R. (2003). The impact of concept mapping as a reading strategy on EFL students’ comprehension(Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Tehran, Iran.

Rouhi, A. (2006). Striking an effective balance between accuracy and fluency in task-based teaching (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Tehran, Iran.

Unpublished master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation available from a database service:

Wendel, J. (1997). Planning and second language narrative production (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest dissertation and theses database. (UMI    No.9813575).

Yuan, F. (2001). The effects of planning on language production in task-based language teaching (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations and theses database. (UMI No. 9997306).

Paper presented at a conference:

McCroskey, J.C., & Baer, J.E. (1985). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, CO.

Proceedings published:

Heller, J., Hockemeyer, C., & Albert, D. (2004). Applying competence structures for peer tutor recommendations in CSCL environments. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Joensuu, Finland, 20, 1050-1051.

Journal title without DOI, title translated from Persian to English

Haqiqi-nasab, M., &Hedayati, S. (2005). Barrasi-e tasvir-sazinaqsh-e jensiyatdaragahi-haye bazar-gani-e sima-ye jomhoori-e eslami-e Iran [A study of the realization of the role of gender in Iran's national television commercials]. Motale'at-e Zanan, 3(7), 33-50.

Book translation, title translated from Persian to English

Karimkhan-Zand, H. (2006). Barrasi-e ravand-e tajammol-garaii dar Iran: Sal-haye 1362-1375 [A study of the tendency toward the life of luxury in Iran: 1983-1996]. Tehran: The Secretariat for Public Culture Council.


Prepared by Hadi Hamidi

Ph.D. in TEFL, USR, Tehran, Iran

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